Senate Resolution 202
A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate
regarding the genocidal Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933
Senate Resolution 202, introduced by Helsinki Commission
Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo.) - the first Congressional resolution
and unambiguously calls the Great Famine a genocide.
Below is a list of the current co-sponsors of Sen. Ben Nighthorse
Senate Resolution 202, the resolution on the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in
that unequivocally calls the Famine a genocide, which was introduced by
the Colorado Republican
on July 28, 2003. The senators are listed in the order in which they signed
on as co-sponsors;
new sponsors are indicated by an asterisk. At present the resolution's sponsors
include 12 Republicans and 21 Democrats.
The measure, whose official title is "A resolution
expressing the sense of the Senate
regarding the genocidal Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933," was referred
to the Senate's Committee
on Foreign Relations on July 28, 2003, where it has been stalled.
George Voinovich (R-Ohio), Mike DeWine (R-Ohio), George
Richard Durbin (D-Ill.), Frank Lautenberg (D-N.J.), Norm Coleman (R-Minn.),
Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.), Saxby Chambliss (R-Ga.), Joe Biden (D-Del.),
Arlen Specter (R-Pa.), Russ Feingold (D-Wis.), Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.),
Rick Santorum (R-Pa.), Jon Corzine (D-N.J.), Paul Sarbanes (D-Md.),
Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.), John Kerry (D-Mass.), Carl Levin (D-Mich.),
Wayne Allard (R-Colo.), Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.), Joseph Lieberman (D-Conn.),
Mark Dayton (D-Minn.), Hillary Clinton (D-N.Y.), Debbie Stabenow (D-Mich.),
Mary Landrieu (D-La.), Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.), Susan Collins (R-Maine),
Patty Murray (D-Wash.), Christopher J. Dodd (D-Conn.), John McCain (R-Ariz.),
Herb Kohl (D-Wis.), James Inhofe (R-Okla.)*
NB: Of the 19 members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,
10 are co-sponsors - Republicans Allen, Voinovich and Coleman, and Democrats
(the ranking minority member), Sarbanes, Boxer, Kerry, Feingold, Corzine
and Dodd - of S. Res. 202,
while nine committee members - Republicans Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), Chuck
Lincoln Chafee (R.I.), Sam Brownback (Kan.), Michael Enzi (Wyo.), Lamar
and John Sununu (N.H.), and Democrats Bill Nelson (Fla.) and Jay Rockefeller
(W.Va.) - are not.
Sen. Lugar is the Foreign Relations Committee chairman.
ACTION ITEM: Senate Resolution
EDITORIAL: Stop stalling
S. Res. 202
EDITORIAL: Calling all
EDITORIAL: Have you done
Securing passage of the Famine-Genocide resolution
EDITORIAL: The Famine
and Russia's denials
EDITORIAL: Famine resolutions
SENATE RESOLUTION 202
S. RES. 202 in the Senate of the United States.
Mr. Campbell submitted the following resolution; which was referred to
the Committee on Foreign Relations.
Expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the genocidal Ukraine Famine
Whereas 2003 marks the 70th anniversary of the Ukraine Famine, a man-made
disaster that resulted in the deaths of millions of innocent Ukrainian men,
women, and children and annihilated an estimated 25 percent of the rural
population of that country;
Whereas it has been documented that large numbers of inhabitants of Ukraine
and the then largely ethnically Ukrainian North Caucasus Territory starved
to death in the Famine of 1932-1933, which was caused by forced collectivization
and grain seizures by the Soviet regime;
Whereas the United States Government's Commission on the Ukraine Famine
concluded that former Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and his associates committed
genocide against Ukrainians in 1932-1933, using food as a political weapon
to achieve the aim of suppressing any Ukrainian expression of political
and cultural identity and self-determination;
Whereas, as a result, millions of rural Ukrainians starved amid some
of the world's most fertile farmland, while Soviet authorities prevented
them from traveling to areas where food was more available;
Whereas requisition brigades, acting on Stalin's orders to fulfill the
impossibly high grain quotas, seized the 1932 crop, often taking away the
last scraps of food from starving families and children and killing those
Whereas Stalin, knowing of the resulting starvation, intensified the
extraction from Ukraine of agricultural produce, worsening the situation
and deepening the loss of life;
Whereas, during the Ukraine Famine, the Soviet government exported grain
to western countries and rejected international offers to assist the starving
Whereas the Ukraine Famine was not a result of natural causes, but was
instead the consequence of calculated, ruthless policies that were designed
to destroy the political, cultural, and human rights of the Ukrainian people;
Whereas the Soviet Union engaged in a massive cover-up of the Ukraine
Famine, and journalists, including some foreign correspondents, cooperated
with the campaign of denial and deception; and
Whereas, 70 years later, much of the world is still unaware of the genocidal
Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That it is the sense of the Senate that:
(1) the millions of innocent victims of the Soviet-engineered Ukraine
Famine of 1932-1933 should be solemnly remembered and honored on the 70th
anniversary of the famine;
(2) the 70th anniversary of the Ukraine Famine should serve as a stark
reminder of the brutality of the totalitarian, imperialistic Soviet regime
under which respect for human rights was a mockery and the rule of law a
(3) the Senate condemns the callous disregard for human life, human rights,
and manifestations of national identity that characterized the Stalinist
policies that caused the Ukrainian Famine;
(4) the man-made Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933 was an act of genocide as
defined by the United Nations Genocide Convention;
(5) the Senate supports the efforts of the government of Ukraine and
the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament) to publicly acknowledge and
call greater international attention to the Ukraine Famine; and
(6) an independent, democratic Ukraine, in which respect for the dignity
of human beings is the cornerstone, offers the best guarantee that atrocities
such as the Ukraine Famine never beset the Ukrainian people again.
Senate Resolution 202
April 18, 2004
Senate Resolution 202
There are now 30 senators who are co-sponsors of Senate Resolution 202
introduced by Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell. This is a significant increase
since fall 2003; thus, the challenge, in some ways, is not as daunting as
It has been previously reported that the Bush administration and Sen.
Richard Lugar, chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, are
not supporting S. Res. 202, which deals with the genocidal Ukrainian Famine
of 1932-1933. While this situation would not normally bode well for a resolution's
successful passage, we must keep in mind that this is an election year -
and the prospects for a close election are all there. Does either political
party not want the votes of Ukrainian Americans and Americans interested
in effective U.S.-Ukraine relations?
If each and everyone of us can urge everyone interested in Ukraine to
contact the remaining 70 senators to become co-sponsors of S. Res. 202,
then, who knows, possibly the administration and Sen. Lugar may have a change
of heart. The U.S.-Ukraine Foundation is also supporting this effort by
recently submitting letters, focusing on the importance of S. Res. 202,
to each of the 70 senators.
Published on page 11 is a list of the 70 senators, in state alphabetical
order, who have yet to become co-sponsors of S. Res. 202 along with their
fax and phone numbers, and the names of their aides who handle foreign policy
Faxed letters and phone calls are most effective; mailed letters also
are effective, but due to heightened security concerns, they take considerable
time to reach Senate offices.
If the senators from your state are co-sponsors already, urge relatives
and friends from other states to contact their senators who have not yet
come out in supporting of S. Res. 202.
Faxed and mailed letters can be addressed as:
Honorable (Senator's name)
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510
Note: Somewhere on the faxed or mailed letter, add "Attn: aide's
name)" to make sure the letter gets directed to the appropriate legislative
aide. If you call a Senate office, ask for the Senator's aide by name and
speak directly to him or her.
* * *
Dear Senator (Name):
I urge you to become a co-sponsor of Senate Resolution 202, regarding
the genocidal Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933, introduced by Sen. Ben Nighthorse
Campbell on July 28, 2003, and co-sponsored by 29 other senators as of April
This resolution is dedicated to the memory of the victims of a heinous
crime against humanity. The resolution reminds us all that the Free World
cannot rest as long as oppressive regimes exist in this world.
S. Res. 202 is critical not only for symbolic purposes but also because
it sends a powerful message to the democratic forces in Ukraine that the
U.S. Senate supports the development of free institutions that embrace the
true meaning of democracy, liberty and justice in Ukraine.
Your support of S. Res. 202 is essential and requested.
* * *
The support of the Ukrainian American community is critically important
for the passage of S. Res. 202. If you have any questions or would like
assistance in contacting your senator's office, please contact Marko Serbinsky
at the U.S.-Ukraine Foundation, firstname.lastname@example.org.
- submitted by John A. Kun, vice president/chief operating officer,
List of senators
who are not co-sponsors of S. Res. 202
March 21, 2004
Stop stalling S. Res. 202
Over the course of the past few months we have on occasion used this
space to voice our strong support for Senate Resolution 202, "A resolution
expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the genocidal Ukraine Famine
of 1932-1933," and have often asked our readers to write their senators
and urge support for the resolution.
Now, with the presidential election in the United States approaching,
the two front runners in that election have demonstrated to us their stance
with regard to the issue. But before we address that topic further, a little
background on S. Res. 202 is in order.
Since the resolution was introduced, nearly eight months ago, on July
28, 2003, by Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo.), co-chairman of the
U.S. Helsinki Commission, it has been endorsed by 28 co-sponsors, but has
nonetheless languished in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
A similar resolution, H. Res. 356, whisked through the House of Representatives
and on October 20, 2003, passed in that chamber without a single dissenting
vote. The major difference between the two resolutions, however, is the
use of the term genocide when describing the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933.
While the Senate resolution, which unequivocally states that "the man-made
Ukraine famine of 1932-1933 was an act of genocide as defined by the United
Nations Genocide Convention," the House resolution does not call the
famine a genocide, but instead quotes the U.S. Government's Commission on
the Ukraine Famine, which states that "Joseph Stalin and those around
him committed genocide against Ukrainians in 1932-1933."
Currently, S. Res. 202 sits stalled in the Foreign Relations Committee,
where Chairman Richard Lugar (R-Ind.) waits for the resolution to have its
language altered or be abandoned altogether. When asked whether Sen. Lugar
supports S. Res. 202, his press secretary at the Foreign Relations Committee,
Andy Fisher, told The Weekly via e-mail that "Sen. Lugar supports H.
Res. 356, a resolution on this issue. It passed the House by a vote of 382-0.
It was introduced by Congressman [Henry] Hyde, the chairman of the House
International Relations Committee." Asked again whether Sen. Lugar
supports the Senate resolution, Mr. Fisher said the senator does not.
However, the situation still begs the question, How can a Senate resolution
with 29 sponsors, nearly one-third of the entire U.S. Senate, sit in committee
for nearly eight months? The answer, Mr. Fisher told The Weekly on March
17, rests with the White House. "The major hold-up to S. Res. 202 is
that the Bush administration has expressed strong opposition to it,"
Mr. Fisher said via e-mail. Repeated phone calls made to the White House
to clarify why the administration opposes S. Res. 202 were not returned.
The dilemma for Mr. Bush, according to informed sources familiar with
the Senate legislation, is twofold. On the one hand, Russia continues to
oppose any legislative language that calls the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933
a genocide. On the other hand, and our sources tell us this is the real
pressure against S. Res. 202, the Turkish government fears that if the 1932-1933
Famine in Ukraine is recognized as genocide it would spur similar action
from Armenians who seek recognition for the genocide that took place in
Turkey from 1915 to 1918.
Writing in The Weekly on January 11, Sen. Joseph Biden (D-Del.), the
ranking Democrat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said that the
Bush administration opposes passage of S. Res. 202 because "the administration
disagrees with the use of the term 'genocide' to describe the Stalinist
policies in Ukraine." Sen. Biden rightfully argued that "the Senate
Resolution is not an anti-Russian piece of legislation. It carefully avoids
any accusations of collective guilt for the genocide and casts no aspersions
on the current Russian government."
While the Bush administration's lack of support for S. Res. 202 is disheartening,
we should note that the presumptive Democratic presidential candidate, Sen.
John Kerry, voiced his support for the Senate resolution months ago when
he became a co-sponsor on October 30, 2003.
S. Res. 202, we noted in a previous editorial, has bipartisan senatorial
support -10 Republicans and 19 Democrats now co-sponsor the resolution.
However, even with such significant co-sponsorship from both sides of the
aisle, sadly Sen. Lugar, it seems, would rather take his cue on this issue
from an administration more willing to appease foreign governments than
to acknowledge the genocide that killed 7 million to 10 million in Ukraine
- the kin of 900,000 Americans of Ukrainian ancestry.
January 25, 2004
Calling all Ukrainian Americans
The U.S. Congress is back from its holiday recess, resuming its sessions
as of Tuesday, January 20. As noted by various news media, the Congress
has to deal with a number of leftover issues and bills - not the least of
them an $820 billion spending measure that funds diverse federal agencies.
Also in the legislative mix are such significant measures as bills on energy,
highway programs and taxes. Thus the legislative calendar is quite full.
Plus, with 2004 being an election year - and a presidential election year
at that - the congressional calendar will be cut short due to breaks for
the two party conventions during the summer and an early recess in the fall
that provides time for members of Congress to travel back home and campaign.
Thus, observers say, the congressional schedule will be dominated by politics.
In the midst of all this, there is a Senate resolution that deserves
the Senate's affirmative vote. We speak of Senate Resolution 202, "expressing
the sense of the Senate regarding the genocidal Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933."
The resolution was introduced half a year ago, on July 28, 2003, by Sen.
Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo.), co-chairman of the U.S. Helsinki Commission.
While it continues to gain co-sponsors - the count is now up to 27 - it
continues to languish in committee. (See update on S. Res. 202 on page 4
and adjoining columns on this page.)
That is why there continue to be calls for Ukrainian Americans and others
to contact Sen. Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), who chairs the Foreign Relations
Committee, to seek his support for this significant measure. In addition,
Ukrainian Americans and friends of our community are being asked to contact
their senators, if they are not yet co-sponsors of S. Res. 202, to impress
upon them the importance of this resolution and explain why it is imperative
that it be passed. At the same time, Sen. Campbell has written a "Dear
Colleague" letter to all the members of the Senate, in which he underscores:
"It is important that the world not forget this genocidal famine and
that we support Ukraine's independence and democratic development as the
best assurance that atrocities such as the Famine become truly unthinkable."
It is noteworthy that this resolution includes senators on both sides
of the aisle - 10 Republicans and 18 Democrats. Thus, it is neither a Republican,
nor a Democratic initiative, but a bipartisan expression of the sense of
the Senate at a time when communities throughout the world have been commemorating
the 70th anniversary of the Famine-Genocide, at a time when there are few
survivors of that horror left among us.
Why should we rally to secure passage of this particular resolution?
The answer is simple. S. Res. 202, which unequivocally states that "the
man-made Ukraine famine of 1932-1933 was an act of genocide as defined by
the United Nations Genocide Convention," is the strongest resolution
dealing with the horrific events of 1932-1933 introduced in either house
of the U.S. Congress. It tells the world the truth about what happened during
the Famine years in Ukraine and neighboring ethnically Ukrainian regions,
and it resolves that the millions of victims should be "solemnly remembered"
and that the anniversary of the Famine "should serve as a stark reminder
of the brutal imperialistic Soviet regime." Through this resolution
the Senate "condemns the callous disregard for human life, human rights
and manifestations of national identity that characterize the Stalinist
policies that caused the Ukrainian Famine" and supports efforts "to
publicly acknowledge and call greater international attention" to the
Famine. In short, S. Res. 202 is both an important statement of the facts
and a statement of U.S. concern.
We cannot fail to advocate and secure passage of this landmark resolution,
for we cannot fail the memory of the millions of our kin who perished during
the Famine of 1932-1933. And, the Senate must not fail to acknowledge the
deaths of between 7 million and 10 million men, women and children during
one of history's worst genocides.
October 19, 2003
Have you done your part?
Securing passage of the Famine-Genocide resolution
Twice thus far we have written in this space about the significance of
Senate Resolution 202, "expressing the sense of the Senate regarding
the genocidal Ukraine Famine of 1932-1933," which was introduced back
on July 28 by Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo.), co-chairman of the
U.S. Helsinki Commission (see our editorials of August 10 and September
This resolution - one of three that have been introduced this year in
the U.S. Congress to mark the 70th anniversary of the Famine-Genocide -
calls the Famine of 1932-1933 "an act of genocide as defined by the
United Nations Genocide Convention" (more properly the Convention on
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted in 1948). It
is S. Res. 202 that the Russian Embassy in the United States has been trying
to derail because, as its press secretary stated, "We categorically
disagree with this assessment of the famine in Ukraine of the 1930s."
This week we once again focus attention on the measure because it needs
your action. To date, the Senate resolution has 15 co-sponsors - a nice
number but, frankly, not good enough. We can and must do better to secure
the support of more senators for this important resolution.
According to Thomas, Legislative Information on the Internet (a service
of the Library of Congress), the resolution now has 13 senators as co-sponsors.
Listed in the order they signed on, they are: George V. Voinovich (R-Ohio),
Michael DeWine (R-Ohio), George Allen (R-Va.), Richard J. Durbin (D-Ill.),
Frank R. Lautenberg (D-N.J.), Norm Coleman (R-Minn.), Barbara A. Mikulski
(D-Md.), Saxby Chambliss (R-Ga.), Joseph R. Biden (D-Del.), Arlen Specter
(R-Pa.), Russell D. Feingold (D-Wis.), Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) and Rick
Santorum (R-Pa.) Reports from Washington insiders indicate that Jon Corzine
(D-N.J.) and Paul Sarbanes (D-Md.) also have signed on.
So, Dear Readers, if you do not see the names of your senators on the
list above, you know what to do: write those letters, send those e-mails
and make those phone calls encouraging your senators become co-sponsors
of Senate Resolution 202. Your message needn't be lengthy; a simple and
concise request for co-sponsorship of a resolution that is important to
you as a constituent and your Ukrainian American community will do. If,
on the other hand, you do see the name or names of your senators, drop them
a line and thank them for supporting this most significant resolution.
On the 70th anniversary of the Famine-Genocide that brutally killed millions
of our people, millions of our relatives, we must continue our work to ensure
that the truth will, in the end, be victorious. For, as political theorist
and American patriot Thomas Paine, who helped inspire the American Revolution,
wrote: "It is an affront to truth to treat falsehood with complaisance."
September 21, 2003
The Famine and Russia's denials
The Convention on Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, defines genocide
as: "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in
whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, such as:
a) killing members of the group; b) causing serious bodily or mental harm
to members of the group; c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions
of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in
part; d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."
The definition above lays the groundwork for the topic of this week's
editorial: the Russian Embassy's attempt to derail the U.S. Senate resolution
commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine.
A front page story in this issue, which is based on a Radio Liberty report,
indicates that representatives of Russia have contacted officials at the
U.S. Department of State and in Congress in an effort to block passage of
the resolution, introduced in late July by Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell
(R-Colo.), co-chairman of the U.S. Helsinki Commission. The reason: the
resolution characterizes the Famine that was perpetrated on the orders of
Joseph Stalin as "an act of genocide as defined by the United Nations
The press secretary of the Russian Embassy, Yevhen Khoryshko, told Radio
Liberty: "We categorically disagree with this assessment of the famine
in Ukraine of the 1930s. ... The policies of collectivization and the famine
in Ukraine of the 1930s in no way fall under the juridical concept of genocide."
Furthermore, he chided U.S. lawmakers for facilely "giving political
assessments that have far-reaching consequences" and stated that this
readiness to issue such an evaluation of the Famine "testifies to the
lack of understanding on the part of American lawmakers of the juridical
essence of the term 'genocide.' "
The Russian Embassy spokesperson's comments come in the wake of a statement
made back in August by Russia's ambassador to Ukraine, Viktor Chernomyrdin,
who said that Russia has no intention of apologizing for the Stalin-era
famine: "We're not going to apologize ... there is nobody to apologize
to." The envoy went so far as to suggest that perhaps it is the Georgians
who owe Ukrainian an apology since, after all, Stalin was Georgian - this
despite the fact that Russia, by its own choice, is considered by the international
community to be the successor state to the USSR, and, therefore, any apology
in the name of the USSR is Russia's to make.
Clearly then, the genocide deniers are hard at work.
All of the above makes it even more imperative that we Ukrainian Americans
- and all those we can rally to our cause - must work to secure passage
of Senate Resolution 202. During this 70th anniversary of the Famine-Genocide
we can accept nothing less than full acknowledgment that the "Holodomor"
(as it is known in Ukrainian) that killed 7 million to 10 million of our
brethren in Ukraine was unmitigated genocide. So, get on the phone, write
those letters and send those e-mails to your senators to urge them to sign
on as co-sponsors of this landmark resolution that unequivocally states
August 10, 2003
Famine resolutions in Congres
On the front page of this issue, readers will note a news story about
two separate resolutions introduced in late July in the U.S. Senate and
the U.S. House of Representatives to commemorate the 70th anniversary of
the Famine in Ukraine in which a quarter of the country's rural population
was intentionally killed. Both measures call for remembrance of the victims,
condemnation of brutal Soviet policies, and dissemination of information
and knowledge about the Famine of 1932-1933.
It must be underscored that both resolutions refer to the Famine as a
genocide, as both cite the 1988 report of the U.S. Commission on the Ukraine
Famine which concluded that Stalin and his cohorts had "committed genocide
against Ukrainians in 1932-1933."
It is most significant, however, that the Senate resolution states that
"the man-made Ukraine famine of 1932-33 was an act of genocide as defined
by the United Nations Genocide Convention." Adopted in 1948 by the
U.N. General Assembly, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
the Crime of Genocide defines genocide as "any of the following acts
committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic,
racial or religious group, such as: a) killing members of the group; b)
causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c) deliberately
inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its
physical destruction in whole or in part; d) imposing measures intended
to prevent births within the group; e) forcibly transferring children of
the group to another group."
Both the House and Senate resolutions also refer to Stalin's and subsequent
Soviet leaders' massive cover-up of the forced Famine. As well, they cite
the role of Western correspondents of the time. The House resolution cites
the courage of Gareth Jones, William Henry Chamberlin and Malcolm Muggeridge
in reporting the Famine - and that fact they "were disparaged and criticized"
for doing so. The Senate resolution points out that "some foreign correspondents
cooperated with the campaign of denial and deception" - a reference
to, among others, the infamous Walter Duranty.
In introducing the Senate Resolution, Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell delivered
an eloquent statement in which he said: "The Ukraine Famine was not
the result of drought or some other natural calamity, but of Soviet dictator
Stalin's utterly inhumane, coldly calculated policy to suppress the Ukrainian
people and destroy their human, cultural and political rights. It was the
result of purposeful starvation." He described the purpose of his resolution
as not only commemorating "millions of innocent victims," but
also focusing "international attention to one of the 20th century's
most appalling atrocities."
But why two resolutions? Each stands on its own as an expression of the
sense of the U.S. Congress that the Famine must be remembered and that knowledge
of this crime against humanity is key to assuring that such genocidal acts
So, in the end, dear readers, we and you should strongly support both
resolutions and urge our senators and representatives to do so. For, as
Sen. Campbell noted, " It is vital that the world not forget the Ukraine
Famine, honor its victims, and reiterate our support for Ukraine's independence
and democratic development as the best assurance that atrocities such as
the famine become truly unimaginable."
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